NTP

A turning point for tutoring? The debate that brought our mission to the House of Commons

21 March 2024

This week, the House of Commons held a Westminster Hall Debate on tutoring provision in England. The debate itself is unquestionably a positive step. Politicians from across party lines acknowledged the transformative impact of tutoring. They highlighted its ability to close the attainment gap and boost pupil confidence. Action Tutoring was highlighted specifically for its work by MP Paul Howell.

Quote from Paul Howell (Conservative MP for Sedgefield): "Action Tutoring’s analysis shows that 65% of disadvantaged pupils pass their maths GCSE after attending at least 10 tutoring sessions with the charity. Action Tutoring pupils were nearly 13 percentage points more likely to pass maths GCSE than other disadvantaged pupils nationally. Those are significant interventions. I could continue, but what I want to say is that Action Tutoring’s work is indicative of so much of the valuable tutoring provided by volunteers and others. We must celebrate that work."

MP and Liberal Democrat Spokesperson for Education, Munira Wilson, proposed the debate. She proceedings arguing for the continuation of government-funded tutoring programmes for disadvantaged children. Quoting research from The Sutton Trust, Public First, and the Education Endowment Foundation, Ms Wilson urged the minister for education to “do battle with his Treasury colleagues” and find funding for tutoring.

Quote from Munira Wilson (MP for Twickenham, Liberal Democrat Spokesperson for Education): "Under-18s in England must retake GCSE English and maths if they do not achieve a grade 4 pass. In 2023, that resulted in a staggering 167,000 students having to retake maths and 172,000 resitting English. When combined, that is the highest number of retakes in a decade. We are setting those children up for repeated failure unless different help and support is provided."

Much of our advocacy work, alongside that of our colleagues from Get Further and The Tutor Trust was mentioned. Multiple case studies and the letter to parliament signed by over 500 schools all reinforcing the point that stakeholders including pupils, parents, and teachers all support continued investment in tutoring programmes.

Quote from Jonathan Gullis (Conservatve MP for Stoke-on-Trent North): "Education is the absolute bedrock to levelling up. It is the bedrock to making sure that life chances can be achieved. I have no fiscal rules when it comes to education, because I believe that if we shove all the money there, we will have better outcomes on health and work, fewer people needing to use the welfare state, better home ownership, better wages, and less poverty in our country. Education is at the epicentre of achieving that, and we should therefore be pouring money into the sector."

Shadow Minister for Education, Catherine McKinnell, criticised the government for neglecting the National Tutoring Programme (NTP) despite its potential benefits. She highlighted the significant learning gaps caused by the pandemic, especially for disadvantaged pupils. Despite improvements to an initially flawed NTP, schools likely can’t afford to keep it going due to a lack of continued funding.

Quote from Catherine McKinnell (Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne North, Shadow Minister for Education and Schools): "The Institute for Fiscal Studies has found that schools funding in England is already not increasing as fast as the cost pressures schools are facing. That means that the poorest schools are likely to struggle the most to find the cash for tutoring, and that our most disadvantaged pupils will miss out."

In his response, the Rt Hon Damian Hinds, Minister of State for Education, defended the decision to end funding for the NTP. Stating that the Government believes tutoring remains important and schools will continue to be able to use pupil premium funding to support it. This is a sentiment that was not supported by many members present.

Quote from Damian Hinds (Conservative MP for East Hampshire, Minister of State for Education): "Although the national tutoring programme was always a time-limited programme post-covid, tutoring will continue to play an important role and we know that the evidence shows that tutoring is an effective, targeted approach to increase pupils’ attainment."

What now?

Action Tutoring remains firmly committed to providing access to quality tutoring for all pupils who need it. We are actively exploring alternative funding options, including increased philanthropic support, to keep costs low for schools and continue offering our services.  However, this cannot replace the long-term, sustainable funding that is needed to truly embed tutoring within the education system.

A powerful voice delivered: Petition for tutoring funding reaches Downing Street

9 February 2024

On 8th February, 2024, a resounding message was delivered to Downing Street. A message driven by data, backed by educators, and amplified by the potential of countless pupils. Action Tutoring CEO and founder, Susannah Hardyman and fellow representatives of the Fair Education Alliance presented a petition demanding the continuation of vital tutoring funding for schools and colleges.

Sarah Waite (Get Further), Abigail Shapiro (Tutor Trust) and Susannah Hardyman (Action Tutoring) deliver the signed letter to 10 Downing Street
Sarah Waite (Get Further), Abigail Shapiro (Tutor Trust) and Susannah Hardyman (Action Tutoring) deliver the signed letter to 10 Downing Street

524 teachers and senior leaders from 423 schools and colleges have signed the petition. All are united in their support for essential funding to ensure their pupils receive the academic support they need for success. After four years, the government is set to end funding for its flagship National Tutoring Programme (NTP) this summer. Boris Johnson launched the £1.5 billion programme in 2021 in order to address the national educational gaps exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.

graph to show signatories by job title

The economic and social case for tutoring

This move comes at a critical juncture. The pandemic’s shadow lingers, widening the attainment gap and placing immense pressure on school budgets. However, research paints a clear picture of the transformative power of tutoring, proving it to be a powerful response to this challenge:

  • Public First highlighted a £4.3 billion net benefit to the economy from the NTP between 2021-2023. This substantial impact is driven by individuals who, through tutoring, enhance their grades and subsequently secure higher lifetime earnings.. This translates to 430,000 grade improvements, opening doors to further education, higher earnings, and a brighter future. For every £1 spent on tutoring, there’s a benefit to the economy of £6.58. 
  • Action Tutoring’s impact report brings the numbers to life: a 14-percentage point jump in maths standards for disadvantaged primary pupils, a 13-percentage point rise in GCSE pass rates for secondary pupils. All whilst simultaneously empowering confidence and engagement across the board for those who received tutoring support.

These figures aren’t just statistics; they represent lives changed, potential unlocked, and a more equitable society built.

One pupil’s plea for continued tutoring

In the midst of discussions about the potential end of vital tutoring funding, a poignant moment unfolded at a recent school visit by Labour MP Catherine West. When informed by his headteacher that the Government may not fund tutoring next year a, normally shy, 10 year year-old wanted to ensure he had a chance to speak to the “lady from parliament” with a message that resonated deeply:

Pupil speaks to MP Catherine West about the importance of tutoring

“I just wanted to tell you how good English tutoring has been for me. Sometimes I struggle with and feel quite anxious about my English, such as my vocabulary, and my tutor has really helped me. I speak a few languages at home and it really helps me be better at English.”

This wasn’t just a casual comment; it was a testament to the transformative power of tutoring. His message serves as a powerful reminder to policymakers: don’t let this story end prematurely. Don’t deny countless other children the chance to experience the transformative power of individualised support.

What can you do?

  • Share this message, raise your voice, and contact your representatives! For a template letter to contact your MP about funding extension, email us at hello@actiontutoring.org.uk.
  • Stand with the Fair Education Alliance and organisations like Action Tutoring in demanding a brighter future for all.
  • Donate or volunteer your time to tutoring programmes in your community.

Action Tutoring transforms lives: Unveiling our Impact Report 2022-23!

17 January 2024

Imagine a world where educational equity unlocks not just individual potential, but also fuels economic prosperity. Today, that vision takes a significant step forward with the release of two reports: Action Tutoring’s seventh Impact Report and Public First‘s research into the Economic Impact of the National Tutoring Programme (NTP). These reports showcase the undeniable two-fold impact of tutoring: enriching lives and empowering economies.

Our Impact Report shares our key highlights and draws attention to the attainment gap, which is now at its widest in 12 years, and our robust foundation of evidence that proves we are a meaningful solution to help close it.

Why do these reports matter? 

More than just numbers and data; it’s a testament to the 1,743 passionate volunteers who have poured their hearts into 58,880 hours of transformative tutoring for 5,743 pupils facing disadvantage. It is the tangible proof that investing in tutoring works and tells a remarkable tale of economic impact.

Headlines from Public First’s Economic Impact Modelling Release

  • £4.3 billion: The net benefit to the economy from tutoring in two academic years, demonstrating a benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 6.58. This significantly exceeds other programs, such as adult apprenticeships (BCR 4.7).
  • £3.06 billion: The economic contribution of maths tutoring, delivering exceptional value with a BCR of 7.73
  • 430,000 grade improvements: Of these improvements, 26,000 achieved a “pass” (Grade 4) in maths, and 36,000 in English, who otherwise were not expected to. This significantly increases their chances of accessing further education, employment, and higher earnings, highlighting the substantial long-term economic benefit of tutoring.

This isn’t just about boosting numbers on a spreadsheet. It’s about building a stronger, more equitable society where everyone has the chance to contribute and thrive.

The headlines from our Impact Report

  • Closing the achievement gap: National averages for primary school pupils facing disadvantage (or eligible for pupil premium) who received 10 or more tutoring sessions with Action Tutoring saw a 14-percentage point jump in maths and a 7-percentage point gain in reading standards. That’s more than just numbers – it’s lives changed forever.
  • Empowering potential: In secondary schools, our support boosted maths GCSE pass rates by nearly 13 percentage points, giving countless pupils the keys to unlocking their dreams.
  • Building confidence and engagement: Pupils rated their tutors’ clarity at 8.1 out of 10, while teachers acknowledged the overall positive impact of Action Tutoring on pupils with a resounding 8.7 out of 10. This speaks volumes about the positive ripple effect we create.

These achievements aren’t just personal victories – they’re the foundation for a more prosperous future.

How can you join us in building this brighter tomorrow?

Schools: Partner with Action Tutoring and watch your pupils soar, while contributing to a stronger local economy.

Funders: Invest in a solution that delivers both individual and societal rewards.[Website link]

Volunteers: Share your knowledge and passion, become a mentor, and fuel the engine of economic growth.

Everyone: Spread the word, advocate for educational equity, and be part of the change. [Website link]

Highlights: Committee inquiry report on education recovery

7 June 2023

Today, the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee has published its inquiry report on Education Recovery in Schools in England. The report assessed the value and effectiveness of education recovery programmes in schools based on written and oral evidence.

Following the disruption to education by the Covid-19 pandemic with multiple school closures, the Department for Education (DfE) introduced a number of recovery initiatives to help pupils and schools to catch up, most notably, the National Tutoring Programme (NTP).

The Committee’s inquiry assessed the DfE’s management of the recovery programme, the effectiveness of the NTP in meeting its objective, and if the scheme was achieving value for money.

The report found that the DfE did not fully appreciate the ‘pressures schools are under as they seek to help pupils catch up’ with evidence of persistent issues of funding constraints, growing mental health needs among pupils and challenges with teacher recruitment and retention.

As one of the education charities that submitted written evidence to this inquiry, we believe in the potential of the flagship recovery scheme, the National Tutoring Programme (NTP), to help reverse the Covid-19 pandemic disruption in education. 

However, we believe that this progress can only be achieved if the NTP is mainly targeted at disadvantaged pupils, tuition delivery is of high quality, funding is increased and outcomes are properly monitored.

Swift action to close the attainment gap

The report revealed that the Department for Education believes it will take a decade to return the attainment gap – which is at its widest in ten years at primary and secondary levels – to pre-pandemic levels. 

“The 10-year timeline to witness pre-pandemic attainment gap level is too long and stands to ruin the life chances of millions of pupils across the country”

Susannah Hardyman, founder and CEO of Action Tutoring

It recommended that the DfE publish a plan setting out how it will reduce the disadvantage gap as quickly as possible and the expected trajectory, building on good practice.

Without swift action to consolidate and implement multiple recommendations from this report and many others to improve the NTP, there will be far-reaching consequences of learning loss to this generation in schools.

It recommended that the DfE publish a plan setting out how it will reduce the disadvantage gap as quickly as possible and the expected trajectory, building on good practice. Without swift action to consolidate and implement multiple recommendations from this report and many others to improve the NTP, there will be far-reaching consequences of learning loss to this generation in schools.

High absence rate among the disadvantaged

In the autumn and spring terms of 2021-22, the average absence rate for all pupils was 7.4%, compared with 4.5% for the same terms before the pandemic in 2018-19. For disadvantaged pupils, the rate was 10.4% in 2021-22, compared with 7.2% in 2018-19.

It is alarming that persistent pupil absence continues to pose a significant challenge to schools and the well-being of pupils, especially the disadvantaged. Without pupils attending school, their outcomes are unlikely to improve.

Our evidence to the Education Select Committee on persistent pupil absence contained helpful recommendations to tackle the issue including:

  • Sharing drinks and snacks during tutoring sessions to reduce hunger
  • Letters and text reminders to parents about upcoming sessions in the day
  • Parent information sessions about tutoring and its benefits
  • Incentives such as vouchers if pupils attend the majority of tutoring sessions
  • Certificate presentation and awards in assembly at the end of programme
  • Integrate attendance into the positive behaviour management system such as gaining points for their ‘house’ through attendance

The report charged the DfE to develop a better understanding of why disadvantaged pupils have higher rates of absence than others and take targeted action to reduce absence rates among them.

“Continuing to invest in ensuring the most vulnerable pupils show up in the classroom is critical to breaking the cycle of low attendance rates currently. Persistent pupil absence will give rise to a surge of problems in the future for young people if the root causes are not addressed.

Susannah Hardyman

Funding constraints for schools

Although the steep subsidy cut for the NTP has been reversed, schools are still grappling with funding constraints and budget squeezes. Schools that are struggling to pay 40% of tutoring costs this academic year will still struggle to make up for the 50% next year.

Additional funding commitment is needed long-term to ensure tutoring is sufficiently embedded in the education system widely and particularly for pupils facing disadvantage.

Increasing take-up of NTP

It is discouraging that 13% of schools did not take up the NTP and missed out on the benefits of subsided tutoring. The DfE must ramp up its efforts through a campaign to win the hearts and minds of parents and ​conscientise schools on the value and moral imperative of channelling the NTP funding towards those eligible for Free School Meals.

The report urged the DfE to do more to understand why some schools are not taking part in the National Tutoring Programme and take more effective action to increase participation.

We believe the Department should work with tuition providers with demonstrated impact to expand into cold spots and areas with low uptake to ensure that every disadvantaged child in the country, regardless of where they live, can access high-quality tutoring.

Applying recommendations

The recommendations set out in the Committee’s report also include progress reports on measures for 2030 attainment targets and funding intervention when schools struggle to bolster NTP uptake.

If the proposed solutions are applied, they will have a meaningful impact on closing the attainment gap and reversing the damage done by the pandemic’s disruption to education. The NTP can elevate its reach and impact to ensure it delivers on the intended objectives of the scheme, all in the best interest of disadvantaged young people.

Tutoring subsidy cut reversed but schools need more funding

24 May 2023

The Department of Education (DfE) yesterday announced a major change to the planned subsidy reduction for the National Tutoring Programme (NTP) next academic year.

Originally, the current 60% subsidy support to schools was scheduled to drop to 25% beginning in the autumn term of next year. However, the DfE has reversed that policy decision and agreed to raise the subsidy to 50% for every pupil in receipt of the NTP for the academic year 2023-24.

We’re pleased that our concerns about the steep subsidy drop-off for the NTP next year have been listened to and the subsidy is being increased from 25% to 50% next year. However, we remain concerned that the reality is that schools that struggled to pay 40% of tutoring costs this academic year will still struggle to afford 50% next year.

Susannah Hardyman, founder and CEO of Action Tutoring

The Government introduced the national tutoring programme in the autumn term of 2020 to help pupils, especially those facing disadvantage, to recover from lost learning experienced during the pandemic school closures. 

In the first year, the DfE funded 75% of the programme per pupil with schools expected to finance the remaining part. The subsidy was tapered to 70% in the second year before being reduced to 60% in the current third year. It was set to drop further to 25% next year until yesterday’s reversal announcement.

Fund allocation remains unchanged

Nonetheless, the DfE is not increasing the funding amount schools will receive next year for the NTP as it forecasts less demand and lower uptake of the scheme.

An amount of £150 million will be available to schools next year, despite calls for an increment in cash to cushion schools as they struggle with their already stretched budgets.

Furthermore, the overall amount of funding schools will receive for tutoring isn’t increasing, and given the current financial pressures on schools, we are concerned that this means that fewer pupils will be reached that could really benefit from the support

Susannah Hardyman
Tutoring session

Limited impact in practice

With schools getting no extra funding, the DfE is banking on hopes that fewer pupils will receive tutoring next year but that more schools will at least make use of the funding available. In practice, the subsidy reversal without an increment in tutoring cash will have a limited impact on the number of pupils who receive tutoring in schools.

For instance, in a school that has 50 pupils in receipt of Pupil Premium:

This year they received £162 per pupil premium pupil (60% of £18 an hour x 15 hours) each. For 50 pupil premium pupils, this would give a school £8,100, which would enable 50 pupils to get 15 hours at a 60% subsidy.

However, next year schools will get £67 each per pupil premium pupil (25% of £18 an hour x 15 hours). Using the same example, a school with 50 pupil premium pupils would receive £3,350, enabling 25 pupils to get 15 hours at the newly announced 50% subsidy.

More needs to be done

The increase in subsidy to 50% next year is very welcome to ensure that schools stand a chance of continuing to access tutoring. However, with the nation recording the largest attainment gap in a decade last year and schools struggling with budget squeezes, more still needs to be done to ensure that pupils in receipt of pupil premium and those below the expected standards reap the full benefits of tutoring.

At Action Tutoring, we’re pleased that our fundraising and philanthropy efforts mean we can support schools further beyond the NTP to ensure tutoring really is reaching those that need it most and minimising the barrier of financial pressures on schools.

We believe additional investment is needed long-term to ensure tutoring is sufficiently embedded in the education system widely and particularly, reaches those that need it most.

Susannah Hardyman

DfE updates NTP figures on Pupil Premium, courses and school participation

20 April 2023

With the National Tutoring Programme (NTP) in its third year, the Department for Education has today updated its statistics on the number of courses, school participation, and pupil characteristics.

The NTP was introduced in July 2020 as a four-year education recovery scheme to support children whose learning were most affected by the Covid-19 pandemic disruption. 

As an accredited Tuition Partner that existed long before the NTP and advocated for its introduction, we keenly follow the evidence and impact of the scheme to ensure it’s on track to help students, especially disadvantaged, to recover from learning loss, with the hopes of narrowing the attainment gap.

Here are four quick takeaways from today’s updated statistics:

·   Pupil Premium target

Half of pupils receiving tutoring support under the scheme are in receipt of Pupil Premium (PP) – an annual grant given to schools to improve the attainment of children from low-income households or eligible for Free School Meals (FSM).

According to DfE, “49.8% were known to be eligible for free school meals (FSM) within the last 6 years.”

Although it’s encouraging that 1 in 2 pupils benefitting are from lower income households, the percentage is below the original 65% PP target the scheme was aiming when it was first established.

We are proud that 70% of the pupils we support at Action Tutoring are in receipt of Pupil Premium. Tutoring should be overwhelmingly focused on pupils from low-income backgrounds.

We would advocate for the NTP to remain focused on disadvantaged children by ensuring at least two-thirds of NTP recipients are from disadvantaged backgrounds to help narrow the attainment gap.

·   Schools Participation in NTP

As of mid-January 2023, DfE estimates “that  65.7% of state schools have participated in the NTP in the 2022-23 academic year.” This represents an increase of over 5 percentage points as compared to the figure as of March 2022, which was 59.9%.

About three-quarters of schools have indicated that they intend to deliver tutoring this year.

·   Special Education Needs or Disability (SEND)

The new figures paint a picture of SEND pupils who are receiving tutoring in schools. The data shows 28.3% were known to have special educational needs.

It is encouraging to know the NTP is reaching pupils with special education needs.

·   NTP courses started

The new data estimates that at least 839,495 starts had been made by pupils on tuition courses through the NTP in the 2022-23 academic year alone, resulting in total course starts of at least 3,365,598 as of January this year.

The new total figure is just over half of the original 6 million course starts target of the NTP when it was rolled out in July 2020. Given the NTP is in its third year, it would have been more encouraging if two-thirds of the target figure were reached, however we acknowledge the continuous efforts of the DfE to advance the figures on courses.

More NTP data needed

The NTP data released today is limited as compared to previous statistics. It focuses on restricted data from schools, without indidicating in detail the different tuition routes. 

Today’s data did not capture geographical breakdown of tutoring uptake, which indicates whether the scheme is reaching pupils in cold spots or hard-to-reach areas.

We look forward to more extensive data with estimates broken down by region and the different NTP routes – school-led tutoring, tuition partners, and academic mentors – for greater understanding of the scope and impact of the programme.


New research shows glaring inequalities in tutoring

9 March 2023

Since the Covid-19 pandemic disrupted education in March 2020, tutoring has expanded significantly to help address the lost learning time. With schools shut down for months throughout multiple waves of the pandemic, the National Tutoring Programme (NTP) was introduced as a way to augment learning and help pupils, mostly those facing disadvantage, to catch up.

A new report, Tutoring: the new landscape, published by the Sutton Trust today has thrown more light on how the Covid-19 pandemic has shifted the dynamics of tutoring and the persistent inequalities underlying its delivery and impact.

The report details the changes seen in both private and school-based tutoring, in the aftermath of the pandemic and examines tutoring impact, using the latest data from the Ipsos’ Young People Omnibus and recent COSMO studies.

Tutoring expansion

The data reveals that private tutoring is at its highest levels since 2005, with 30% of young people aged 11-16 receiving private tuition, up from 27% before the pandemic. Though many schools had been using the intervention prior to the introduction of the NTP, the government’s roll-out played a significant role in its growth. Before the pandemic, 10% of secondary school leaders reported tutoring was their priority for Pupil Premium spending but by 2022, this figure had more than tripled to 34%.

About 52% of young people agreed that their progress in school suffered as a result of COVID-19, with about 24% of young people reporting to have received tutoring from their school in the 2021/22 school year, up from 18% in the previous pre-pandemic year.

The significant expansion mirrors Action Tutoring’s delivery, which has more than tripled in reach today, compared to the 2019-20 academic year, in response to the rising demand for learning support during the pandemic.

Socioeconomic differences

The report also demonstrates how in-school tutoring, through the NTP, has helped to increase access to tutoring for pupils who typically would not be able to afford it.

According to the COSMO data, 32% of pupils from the most well-off households by income received private tutoring, compared to 13% for the worst-off. However, this trend is dramatically different when looking at the take-up of in-school tutoring through the NTP. About 32% of those in the worst-off households reported taking up extra tuition in school, compared to 22% in the most well-off.

Thanks to the expansion of in-school tutoring, the proportion of pupils accessing any form of tutoring is now almost level between the most and least deprived, with 39% of those from the most well-off households accessing tutoring, compared to 37% of those from the worst-off. 

The report shows how the NTP is allowing a much wider group of pupils to access tutoring, and if issues with its targeting and delivery quality can be addressed, it holds the potential to level the playing field between the most and least disadvantaged in the long term.

Geographical disparities

The report also showed the stark regional difference in the use of private tuition, with 46% of pupils in London reported to have had private tutoring, compared to 21% in Wales and 16% in the North East. London at 27% is substantially ahead of other regions in tutoring rate, compared to under 12% in the North East.

This finding reflects the existing inequalities in the geographical distribution of private tutoring across the country, however, the introduction of the NTP tipped the scale in the favour of pupils who couldn’t afford it in these areas.

The data shows that regions with the lowest rates of private tutoring, such as the North East, East Midlands, and Yorkshire, have the highest rates of in-school tutoring take-up via the NTP.

Applying recommendations

As a Tuition Partner that existed long before the NTP and advocated for its introduction, we are in full agreement with the recommendations in the report including establishing the NTP for the longer term, stricter targets for disadvantaged young people, cancelling the subsidy reduction, improving quality of content and expanding to more remote areas.

The real long-term gain of the NTP is in closing the widening attainment gap and that can only be achieved if it is embedded permanently in our education system. Many disadvantaged pupils are in need of tutoring support, and making the NTP a permanent fixture will reap long-term benefits to the nation, rather than it being a stopgap measure in education recovery efforts.

Also, re-targeting the NTP more at disadvantaged pupils is the key way to tackle the attainment gap. Reinstating and enforcing Pupil Premium targets that were scrapped by the Department of Education and introducing incentives for uptake will help keep the focus on disadvantaged pupils and ensure accountability.

The report backs our call for the NTP’s regional expansion to more remote or ‘cold spots’, where tutoring is lacking. The capacity of Tuition Partners can be supported to expand our reach to underserved areas and deliver high-quality academic support nationally, especially in hard-to-reach areas.

The report’s recommendation for the planned subsidy reduction to be rescinded is consistent with our ongoing advocacy efforts for the funding to be maintained or increased, as schools continue to battle with budget squeezes. There’s a real risk that without additional funding, rates of uptake in schools will drop sharply upending the gains made to level the playing field.

Game-changer

There is no doubt that the NTP has widened access to disadvantaged pupils, who would otherwise not be in a position to afford it.

We are at a point in our education history where the NTP could significantly narrow the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and their better-off peers.

The recommendations in the Sutton Trust report, if applied to the NTP, will be game-changing to reversing inequalities in education across England, benefitting the life chances of thousands of pupils.